Global warming: causes and consequences

Журнал: Научный журнал «Студенческий форум» выпуск №13(149)

Рубрика: Науки о Земле

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Subbotina A. Global warming: causes and consequences // Студенческий форум: электрон. научн. журн. 2021. № 13(149). URL: https://nauchforum.ru/journal/stud/149/89297 (дата обращения: 19.01.2022).
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Global warming: causes and consequences

Subbotina Anna
Student of the Belgorod State National Research University, Russia, Beigorod




Субботина Анна Анатольевна

студент Белгородского Государственного Национального Исследовательского Университета, РФ, г. Белгород


Abstract. Global warming is one of the most important environmental problems. Climate scientists distinguish between natural and artificial causes of global warming. The main cause of climate change is the greenhouse effect, which is mainly due to anthropogenic activities. As a result of global warming, the currents will change, which will cause uncontrolled climate change throughout the planet. This problem is solved by a significant reduction in emissions and their minimal impact on the environment. The solution to this problem is based on the desire for the harmonious development of the planet and society.

Аннотация. Глобальное потепление является одной из важнейших экологических проблем. Климатологи выделяют естественные и искусственные причины глобального потепления. Основная причина изменения климата – это парниковый эффект, который в основном складывается из-за антропогенной деятельности. В результате глобального потепления изменятся течения, что вызовет неконтролируемое изменение климата на всей планете. Эта проблема решается существенным снижением выбросов и их минимальным воздействием на окружающую среду. В основании решения данной проблемы лежит стремление к гармоничному развитию планеты и общества.


Keywords: global warming, environmental problems, anthropogenic activity, climate, climate change.

Ключевые слова: глобальное потепление, экологические проблемы, антропогенная деятельность, климат, изменение климата.


One of the most important environmental problems of the early 21st century remains the behavior of the climate system, which, according to an international group of experts, is an increase in the global average temperature of air and oceans, widespread melting of snow and ice, and an increase in global average sea level. An increase in the number of various types of natural disasters is currently associated with climate change on the planet, and in the near future significant changes in the natural resource potential of individual territories are possible. The causes and consequences of the intense warming that began in the second half of the twentieth century, according to many climatologists, are many.

Global warming is a measure of the rise in average ambient temperatures over the past century. Its problem is that, starting from the 1970s, this indicator began to increase several times faster. The main reason for this lies in the strengthening of human industrial activity. The temperature of not only water, but also of the air increased by about 0.74 ° C. Despite such a small value, the consequences can be colossal, if the scientific work is to be believed.

Research in the field of global warming reports that temperature changes have accompanied the planet throughout its life. For example, Greenland is evidence of climate change. History confirms that in the XI-XIII centuries this place was called "Green Land" by Norwegian sailors, since there was no snow and ice cover, as today, there was no trace of it.

The causes of global warming are both natural and artificial. P.A. Kovrigo claims that "The main cause of climate change is the greenhouse effect." [3, P. 88]. It consists in increasing the temperature of the lower atmosphere. Greenhouse gases in the air, such as methane, water vapor, carbon dioxide and others, contribute to the accumulation of thermal radiation from the Earth's surface and therefore heat the planet. In his article, E.G. Pushkin's "Prospects for anthropogenic climate change" says that "fires in forest areas lead to a greenhouse effect, since a large amount of carbon dioxide is emitted, and the number of trees that process carbon dioxide and give oxygen decreases."

However, the main contribution is made by human activities. R.S. Salugashvili notes: "The intensive development of industry, the study of the Earth's interior, the development of minerals and their extraction led to the release of a large amount of greenhouse gases, which led to an increase in the temperature of the planet's surface"[7, P. 53]. This is proved by Vyacheslav Pavlovich Kovrigo, the founder of the world's only Problem Research Laboratory of Soil Magnetism. He stressed that "industrial development is the main factor of anthropogenic impact on the environment, which has a significant impact on climate change" [6, P. 31].  

If the current situation is not corrected, the temperature rise will continue. And this will lead to a reduction in drinking water, a range of temperatures, a decrease in crops in the fields, and some crops may disappear, global climatic disasters, hurricanes and tornadoes will become commonplace, the level in the world's oceans will rise, the number of dead zones on the planet will increase, animals and plants from - due to rapid climate change, not everyone will be able to adapt and die. Analyzing the assumptions about the effect of temperature rise on the environment, O.Yu. Bobrova writes: "Climate change, in particular the rise in temperatures, will entail a shift in permafrost further north" [1, P. 40]. In support of this, the statement of T.N. and Zakusilova V.P. They argue that "as a result of global warming, currents will change, which will cause uncontrolled climate change on the entire planet, including the displacement of the permafrost" [2, P. 202].

The problem of climate change on Earth affects all continents. We have proved that significant changes in the natural resource potential of individual territories are possible in the near future. Due to the large amount of carbon dioxide in the air, thermal radiation accumulates, which leads to the heating of the planet. Anthropogenic activities also contribute to the rise in the temperature of the planet. All this, as a result, will lead to a change in currents, which in turn will lead to climate change and to disastrous and irreversible consequences. The question of how to solve this problem remains open, but it can already be assumed that it should include a significant reduction in emissions and their minimum impact on the environment. This is based primarily on the desire for the harmonious development of the planet and society, in which environmental issues should come first.

The Emergencies Ministry reports that the number of floods in the country has almost doubled over the past quarter century. Moreover, many parameters of such disasters are recorded for the first time in history. Scientists predict the impact of global warming in the 21st century, primarily on Siberia and the subarctic regions. Where it leads? Rising permafrost temperatures threaten radioactive waste storage facilities and pose serious economic problems. By mid-century, winter temperatures are projected to rise by 2-5 degrees [5].

There is also the possibility of periodic appearance of seasonal tornadoes - more often than usual. Floods in the Far East have repeatedly brought great harm to the residents of the Amur Region and the Khabarovsk Territory.

The climate on Earth has changed since its inception. Periods of heat and cold have alternated naturally over millions of years. However, the warming that is now much talked about and written about is a change caused by human economic activity. It is impossible to stop warming, but if it can be slowed down, living things will have time to adapt to new conditions. The melting of glaciers will decrease, and fewer people will be affected by floods. The number of unbearably hot days will decrease [4, P. 11].

Russia has the greatest potential to contain global warming, as there are many places in the country where forests can be planted to prevent natural disasters - the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement, which Russia ratified in the fall of 2019. They complemented the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Countries have decided to:

  • Achieve “zero emissions” of carbon dioxide by 2050 at the latest. 
  • Significantly reduce emissions of other greenhouse gases, especially methane. 
  • Reduced energy consumption. 
  • Decarbonization of the energy sector, that is, the complete elimination of the use of fossil fuels with CO2 content and the transition to alternative energy sources. 
  • Reduce greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture.
  • Use methods to remove carbon dioxide from water and air. 

However, climatologists criticize the signed agreements, since they are not signed by all countries and are not responsible for the failure to meet the intended goals. In 2017, the United States, the world's second largest source of pollutant emissions, announced its withdrawal from the Paris Agreement. Ordinary citizens, politicians, businessmen, environmentalists and religious leaders spoke out against him.


List of references:
1. Bobrova O.Yu. Analysis of the influence of modern climate change on the ecological state of the environment in the regions of permafrost in Russia // Science of Kuban. - 2015. - No. 1. - P. 39-44.
2. Zadorozhnaya T.N., Zakusilov V.P. Current trends in the global climate // SCIENCE TIME. - 2015. - No. 3 (15). - S. 199-205.
3. Kovrigo P.A. Changes in the local climate in the context of global warming // Bulletin of BSU. Series 2: Chemistry. Biology. Geography. - 2010. - No. 2. - P.86-91.
4. Kulikov A.I., Mangataev A.Ts., Ubugunov L.L. About global climate change and its ecosystem consequences // Arid ecosystems. - 2014. - No. 3 (60). - S.5-13.
5. National report on the inventory of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases not regulated by the Montreal Protocol for 1990-2011. Part 1. - M., 2013.
6. Pushkina E.G. Prospects for anthropogenic climate change // Priority scientific directions: from theory to practice. - 2013. - No. 8. - P.29-34.
7. Salugashvili R.S., Semenov V.A., Sherstyukov B.G. Climate change and extreme summer climatic conditions in Europe with negative consequences // Problems of regional ecology. - 2012. - No. 6. - P.51-54.