Статья:

Soil cover of South America

Журнал: Научный журнал «Студенческий форум» выпуск №14(150)

Рубрика: Науки о Земле

Выходные данные
Volikova E. Soil cover of South America // Студенческий форум: электрон. научн. журн. 2021. № 14(150). URL: https://nauchforum.ru/journal/stud/150/90163 (дата обращения: 09.02.2023).
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Soil cover of South America

Volikova Elizaveta
Student, Belgorod state University, Russia, Belgorod
Sushenok Margarita
научный руководитель, scientific director, Cand. tech. Sciences, Associate Professor, Novosibirsk State University, Russia, Belgorod

 

ПОЧВЕННЫЙ ПОКРОВ ЮЖНОЙ АМЕРИКИ

 

Воликова Елизавета Александровна

студент, Белгородский государственный университет, РФ, г. Белгород

Сушенок Маргарита Олеговна

научный руководитель, канд. техн. наук, доцент, Новосибирский государств

 

Abstract. The main results of studying the soil cover, as well as patterns of soil distribution in the territory of South America are presented. The soil cover of the world's land is a very important part of the biosphere that supports and regulates its stationary state.

The relevance of studying the soil cover is of great importance for the entire population as a whole. Soil has a spтecial role to play in meeting the challenges of providing basic human needs.

The wide range of distribution and specificity of soil formation conditions caused a large heterogeneity of soil cover and diversity of soils, which deserve to be singled out as an independent object of study.

Аннотация. Приведены основные результаты изучения почвенного покрова, а также закономерностей распространения почв на территории Южной Америки. Почвенный покров мировой суши является весьма важным звеном биосферы, поддерживающим и регулирующим ее стационарное состояние.

Актуальность изучения почвенного покрова имеет большое значение для всего населения в целом. Почве принадлежит особая роль в решении задач по обеспечению основных потребностей человека.

Широкий ареал распространения и специфичность условий почвообразования обусловили большую неоднородность почвенного покрова и многообразие почв, которые заслуживают выделения их в качестве самостоятельного объекта изучения.

 

Keyword: South America, soil zones, soil, continent, climate, forest, precipitation.

Ключевые слова: Южная Америка, почвенные зоны, почва, континент, климат, лес, осадки.

 

The soil cover of the world's land is a very important part of the biosphere, which supports and regulates its stationary state. For this reason, the study of the patterns of spatial distribution of different types and groups of soils, the elucidation of the structure of the soil profile is a fundamental problem of modern natural science and Earth sciences. [3]

Soil and its resources are one of the most important riches of humanity, on the condition of which the well-being of the present and the fate of future generations largely depend. The relevance of the study of soil cover is of great importance for the entire population as a whole. Soil has a special role to play in meeting the challenges of providing basic human needs. The study of the soil is of great importance not only for the individual state, but also for the entire population as a whole, since the use of soil resources increases every year.

South America is the only continent in the Southern Hemisphere that extends into the temperate zone. It is crossed by five geographical zones: northern tropical, equatorial, southern tropical, subtropical, and subboreal. The widest part of the continent lies in the equatorial-tropical latitudes.

Like North America, South America is protected from the west by the high barrier of the Andes, which, along with the direction of the moisture-bearing air masses, determines the nature of the moistening of the adjacent plains.

The Pacific coast and the western slopes of the Andes in the subtropical and tropical zones receive minimal precipitation. The coasts of Northern Chile and Peru are tropical rocky and salt-marsh deserts. Desert landscapes and soils occupy the western slopes and high highlands of the Central Andes. [1]

The barrier role of the Andes is also clearly evident in the southern part of the continent, where the western transport of air masses prevails. The arid climate of Patagonia is enhanced by the presence of a cold Falkland Current along the Atlantic coast of South America. Therefore, the plains of the subboreal belt of South America are dominated by landscapes of desert steppes and deserts with chestnut and brown desert-steppe soils.

The latitudinal zoning of soils on the plains of South America is evident only in the northern, widest part of the continent. [3]

In the equatorial belt, on the plains of South America, lying east of the Andes and receiving moisture from the Atlantic Ocean. It is dominated by humid equatorial rainforests-giley-on yellow ferrallite soils, interspersed with swampy ones. To the north and to the south, somewhat asymmetrically with respect to the equator, there are tropical areas with precipitation of 2000-1000 mm. These are zones of seasonally moist rainforest and savanna on red ferrallite and alferrite soils, occupying the Guiana and the interior of the Brazilian plateau. [5]

In the central western and north-eastern parts of the Brazilian plateau, composed of acidic igneous rocks, xerophytic woodlands and shrub savanna predominate.

In the Atlantic part of the Brazilian Plateau, there is an area of moist tropical and subtropical forests on red ferrallite soils that occupy the lower parts of the eastern mountain slopes and a narrow strip of the coastal lowland. At an absolute altitude of about 2000 m, deciduous forests appear on humus ferrallite acidic soils; at an altitude of 2200 m, forests are replaced by mountain peatlands. In the southwestern part of the Atlantic region, within the volcanic basalt plateau under coniferous-deciduous forests and high-grass prairies, in a subtropical humid climate, dark brown ferrallite and ferrallitized soils and reddish-black soils of subtropical prairies are common. They have a powerful humus horizon, but are acidic and unsaturated. [1]

In the interior of the continent, as the sea air masses transform, the amount of precipitation decreases. The meridional stretch of the humidification zones determines the same direction of the landscape and soil zones. Chernozem-like soils are replaced by subtropical chernozems, subtropical dry desert steppes and xerophytic shrubs appear on brown and gray-brown soils in combination with salt marshes and salt marshes. In the northern part of the continent, there is a vast treeless area covered with grass and palm savannas.

The western, low-lying part of this territory is a flat alluvial plain. It is dominated by swampy and to varying degrees swampy soils. In the southern half of the continent, large areas of alluvial swampy and swampy soils are confined to the Inland Plains. Here, high-grass savanna and tropical woodlands are common on ferrallite gley and marsh soils, often with laterite horizons. [1]

Within the Andean west of South America, the structure of vertical bioclimatogenic zoning is complicated not only by the sharp contrast of bioclimatic conditions, as mentioned above, but also by active volcanic activity. Ash-volcanic deposits are associated with the distribution of dark-colored allophane soils in the equatorial Andes.

The extreme southwestern part of the Andean mountain belt belongs to the subboreal forest sector of the Southern Hemisphere. There are also many active volcanoes, the slopes and foothills of the mountains are covered with thick layers of volcanic ash. On the western, richly moist mountain slopes, under evergreen moist forests (hemigilea), the multi - humus ochreous ash-volcanic soils of "trumao" predominate. [1]

The soils of South America were considered. The characteristics of the geographical distribution of soils are given; the patterns of spatial distribution of different types of soils are studied, which is one of the fundamental problems of the Earth sciences.

Soil properties and soil formation processes are determined by specific physical and geographical factors: bioclimatic and hydrological conditions, topography. Each type of soil is in dynamic balance with the conditions of the natural environment. The properties of each type of soil are formed under the influence of physical and geographical conditions, the change of these conditions is accompanied by a change in the properties of the soil and the appearance of new types, which manifests the phenomenon of zonal distribution of soils on the earth's surface.

 

Список литературы:
1. Vladychenskiy A. S. Features of mountain soil formation. - M.: Nauka, 1998. - 187 р.
2. Volkov S. G. Problems of soil erosion in the USA / / Agroindustrial production: experience, problems and trends of development. – 2000. – No. 2. - pp. 45-55.
3. Dobrovolsky V. V. Geography of soils with the basics of soil science. - Moscow: VLADOS, 1999. - 384 p.
4. Sadovnikova L. K., Orlov D. S., Lozanovsky I. N. Ecology and environmental protection in chemical pollution: textbook. manual. - M.: Higher School, 2006 – - 334 p.
5. Shcherbakov A. P., Protasova N. L. Soil science with the basics of crop production. - Voronezh: RASKHN, 1996. - 236 p.