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The solar system. Hypothesis about the origin of sunspots

Журнал: Научный журнал «Студенческий форум» выпуск №22(158)

Рубрика: Науки о Земле

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Torokhov V. The solar system. Hypothesis about the origin of sunspots // Студенческий форум: электрон. научн. журн. 2021. № 22(158). URL: https://nauchforum.ru/journal/stud/158/94698 (дата обращения: 15.06.2024).
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The solar system. Hypothesis about the origin of sunspots

Torokhov Vadim
Student Belgorod State National Research University, Russia, Belgorod

 

In the solar system, there are many different free celestial bodies that do not have their own orbits. Such bodies can be asteroids, meteorites, comets, as well as free moons that do not belong to the solar system. There is also enough "debris" in Space - debris destroyed as a result of a collision or explosion of celestial bodies. It has long been known that meteorites and other celestial bodies often fall on the Earth, moons and other planets. The Earth and other planets are well protected from such "bombing" by their atmosphere, which burns up most of the small falling objects. But the moons, which have no atmosphere, are literally dotted with impact craters. For example, the moon of Saturn Mimas in the photo on the left, taken by Cassini in 2005, is almost entirely covered with craters from the smallest to gigantic. The sun is not only no exception, but, on the contrary, due to its gigantic attraction, it is thousands of times more likely to be subjected to such "bombardments". But unlike the moons, where each fall leaves a trace forever, the fire on the surface of the Sun destroys all traces of falls over time.

Spots on the Sun appear as a result of falling on it of various celestial bodies.

Not all falling objects form spots, most of them, which are small in size or consist mainly of ice, burn up before reaching the surface, only the largest leave a temporary trail.

Almost all the features of sunspots can be explained by the fall of cosmic bodies.

1. "Spots arise as a result of disturbances in individual sections of the solar magnetic field ..."

Dark spots are areas of the sun's surface that were extinguished by a fallen object, and not suppressed by a magnetic field, as is now mistakenly believed. Perturbation of the magnetic field in the area of ​​spots is not the cause of their appearance, but, on the contrary, a consequence. The extinguished area here gives a free exit to the magnetic field. The fallen object is, figuratively speaking, fuel. Like a log thrown into a fire, it first extinguishes it where it falls, then the fire flares up with renewed vigor.

2. "Sunspots are dark regions on the Sun, the temperature of which is lowered by about 1500 K compared to the surrounding regions of the photosphere ..."

The absence of fire makes these areas relatively "colder" than the rest of the Sun's surface. The temperature of the falling objects is below the temperature of the surface of the Sun, although, as they approach the Sun, they quickly heat up and their surface begins to burn.

3. "First, a torch appears in this place, a little later and to the west - a small point called a pore, several thousand kilometers in size ..." (Wikipedia).

In the photo on the left, the comet's fall into the Sun on May 5, 2011. And this is not the only recorded case of comets falling on the Sun. A powerful bright flash in the form of a torch, appeared even before the comet hit the surface. This image confirms that the torch preceding the appearance of the spot and the fall of cosmic bodies are interrelated phenomena.

4. "The spots are usually formed in groups, but sometimes there is a single spot that lives only a few days, or a bipolar group: two spots of different magnetic polarity, connected by magnetic field lines ..."

Single spots can be explained by the fall on the Sun of cosmic bodies, entirely consisting of solid rock, which are not destroyed by gravity. The usual, group appearance of spots, on the contrary, can be explained by the destructive action of gravity.

5. "The largest groups of sunspots always have an associated group in the other hemisphere (northern or southern). Magnetic lines in such cases leave the sunspots in one hemisphere and enter the sunspots in the other ..."

Perhaps the largest objects are powerful enough to pass through the Sun and exit from the opposite side. A special case if the fallen object is not a stone meteorite or ice comet, but the moon, that is, a small planet with a hard shell and a plasma core (often having its own magnetic field). When the shell is destroyed by gravity, the plasma core of the moon is released, and it should look like a flash.

6. "Groups of sunspots are often extended parallel to the solar equator ..."

A striking example illustrating the formation of group spots is the fall of the Shoemaker-Levy comet on Jupiter in 1994. The comet was shattered into 21 fragments by gravity. The image of Jupiter (left) shows that fragments of comet Shoemaker-Levy, as dark spots, lay in the southern hemisphere along a line parallel to the equator. Also, sunspots stretch approximately parallel to the equator.

7. "The surface of the Sun in the region where the sunspot is located is located approximately 500-700 kilometers lower than the surface of the surrounding photosphere ..."

When space bodies fall on the solid surface of planets or their satellites, a crater is knocked out, that is, a depression on the surface, as, for example, in the picture of Mimas. The surface of the Sun is not solid, but, most likely, a dense viscous liquid, in which also, upon impact, a lowered region (funnel) is formed, which is drawn out over time.

8. "At the beginning of the 11-year cycle of solar activity, on the sun ... "

The cyclical nature of solar activity can also be explained. On its way in the Galaxy, the Sun passes through areas where there are a large number of meteorites and other free bodies (possibly, these are areas of cosmic catastrophes) and here the number of spots, of course, increases. In other parts of the solar path, where there is no "space debris" there are no spots.

 

List of literature:
1. «Советская Энциклопедия» http://www.astronet.ru
2. Грищенко В.А «Роль космоса в жизни людей» (дата обращения 25.04.2020)
3. Апанасов Г.В «Космос» (дата обращения 08.02.2021)