Журнал: Научный журнал «Студенческий форум» выпуск №10(233)

Рубрика: Педагогика

Выходные данные
Gorobtsova L. VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN USING DIDACTIC GAMES // Студенческий форум: электрон. научн. журн. 2023. № 10(233). URL: https://nauchforum.ru/journal/stud/233/124402 (дата обращения: 27.02.2024).
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Gorobtsova Liliya
Student of Belgorod State National Research University, Russia, Belgorod
Markov Alexander
научный руководитель, Scientific supervisor, Senior Lecturer of Belgorod State National Research University, Russia, Belgorod


Abstract. This article raises the issue of methodological support for the process of forming a dictionary of preschoolers. Since the leading activity of preschoolers is the game, it is advisable to use the game as a teaching method. In this regard, we will consider game techniques as a means of developing the vocabulary of preschoolers.


Keywords: didactic game, vocabulary, preschoolers.


The problem of speech development in preschool educational institutions is currently in the process of constant modernization and development. Currently, the study of the peculiarities of the development of children's vocabulary is given great importance. Basically, this is due to the fact of constant growth and changes in the requirements and conditions of modern society, which, due to the growth rate of development, has changed the paradigms of education to the humanization of all spheres of society, including education.

As a rule, any actions of preschoolers carried out in relation to the outside world occur on the basis of the influence of psychological age characteristics. The concept of age-related features refers to psychological science and represents a series of transformations in the psyche of an individual in the process of transition through age periods. At the same time, it is necessary to understand that age characteristics do not have an absolute, stable character and change depending on the child himself. Therefore, when building the process of education, it is very important to properly take into account the age-related psychological characteristics of students, which together are quite different for each age group.

Depending on the age, preschoolers have a number of certain psychological characteristics, therefore they are called age features. One way or another, they influence the formation of certain skills of the child, his preferences, interests. The only thing that remains unchanged is the leading form of activity.

According to terminology, game is a type of activity in situations aimed at recreating and assimilating social experience in which self–management of behavior develops and improves. The game is implemented in the learning system as a technology, method and technique. Game technology is always aimed at a large number of pedagogical and educational tasks. It develops observation and skills to distinguish individual properties of objects, as well as to identify their essential features. In other words, the game as a teaching method has a significant impact on the intellectual formation of students, improving their attention, thinking, creativity.

The game is one of the forms of activity of preschoolers, which allows you to make learning interesting and exciting for students not only as a creative activity, but also as everyday learning. Thus, the game is a key means of solving the problem of motivating cognitive activity.

Here are some examples of working on the development of vocabulary with pupils.

The educator conducts such classes repeatedly for two to three years, until the generalizing meaning of the words that children should know according to the program is assimilated by them.

«Give a general name». The task, as in the previous exercise, is the assimilation of generalizing words, but the work goes in reverse order: the educator calls words denoting some common generic concepts; the children should name words concretizing this.

a) Children receive sets of pictures of the series «Fruits», «Berries», «Furniture», «Transport», «Wild animals», «Pets», etc. Each child is given no more than three series mixed together in his hands and is offered to classify: decompose into groups. Then each child proves to the educator the correctness of his classification:

- Transport is everything you ride: tram, car, bicycle...

- Toys are everything you play with: dolls, bears, cubes, pyramid.

Vegetables are everything that grows in the garden and that you can eat: tomatoes, beets, cucumbers, carrots.

b) A series of pictures can be shown to children on filmstrips or slides, in a cartoon.

c) There are special playsets: «Magic Arrow», «Name it in one word», «Lotto», etc. These games should be recommended for home classes of parents with children, especially with those who lag behind in speech development from the group.

– «Give me three names and more». Samples of didactic material:

a) clover – grass – plant;

b) table – furniture – thing;

c) porridge – dish – food – nutrition.

Exercises with this didactic material can be built like the previous two, but, of course, they have less reliance on real objects. For exercises of this type, it is necessary that the child has sufficient speech development: so that he understands the generalizing meaning of even the most specific (common) words, understands the meaning of words of the first degree of generalization, such as wood, grass, furniture, toys, vegetables and the like. In kindergarten, one should not rush to interpret words of higher than the second degree of generalization, although it is unacceptable to artificially delay the assimilation of such words by children who can do it regardless of age. In the end, we would like to give methodological recommendations that will allow us to correctly organize the educational process for the development of the vocabulary of preschoolers:

1. When selecting certain game methods, it is necessary to take into account the age of the pupils. Too simple games for older preschool age will not cause proper interest, and it will be difficult for the younger preschool link to perceive a complex structure.

2. During the implementation of the game, the game should be kept under constant control, since the loss of the latter will lead to the fact that the game will lose educational value.

3. Game methods and techniques should be selected based on the pedagogical goals and objectives of the lesson. In this case, gaming activity will become an effective way to achieve the set meta-subject goals.

4. When structuring the lesson, the use of play activities should be determined depending on the content of the topic, so as not to lose the course of the educational process in the classroom.

5. It must be remembered that gaming activity forms more personal qualities.

Thus, observing the rules and methodological recommendations given by us, the educator can apply gaming activities not only as an element of entertainment and motivational nature, but also with increased productivity, solving a wider range of goals and objectives, which meets the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard.


List of references:
1. Grigoriev, I. S. Game technologies in additional education // Young scientist / I.S. Grigoriev. – M., 2016. – 102 p.
2. Drozd G.I. Functions of gaming technologies [Electronic resource]. - URL: http://www.psihdocs.ru/1-2-funkcii-igrovih-tehnologij.html (date of reference: 30.05.2022).
3. Kulagina, I.Y. Developmental psychology and age psychology. The full life cycle of human development / I.Y. Kulagina, V.N. Kolutsky. - M.: Academic Project, 2015. - 420 p.
4. Novoselova, S.L. The game of a preschooler / S.L. Novoslova. - M., 2009. - 367 p.