Статья:

THE THEORY OF MODERNIZATION OF TRADITIONAL CULTURE

Журнал: Научный журнал «Студенческий форум» выпуск №15(194)

Рубрика: Филология

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Lobkareva Yu. THE THEORY OF MODERNIZATION OF TRADITIONAL CULTURE // Студенческий форум: электрон. научн. журн. 2022. № 15(194). URL: https://nauchforum.ru/journal/stud/194/109606 (дата обращения: 13.04.2024).
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THE THEORY OF MODERNIZATION OF TRADITIONAL CULTURE

Lobkareva Yulia
Student, Ulyanovsk State Technical University, Russia, Ulyanovsk
Zhukova Yulia
научный руководитель, Scientific supervisor, senior lecturer, Ulyanovsk State Technical University, Russia, Ulyanovsk

 

ТЕОРИЯ МОДЕРНИЗАЦИИ ТРАДИЦИОННОЙ КУЛЬТУРЫ

 

Лобкарева Юлия Артемовна

студент, Ульяновский государственный технический университет, РФ, г. Ульяновск

Жукова Юлия Владимировна

научный руководитель, старший преподаватель, Ульяновский государственный технический университет, РФ, г. Ульяновск

 

The question of the place and role of traditional culture in modern society is very interesting and important. Almost two centuries since the Enlightenment have passed under the banner of the fight against popular ignorance and superstition. Folk art was considered "primitive" and unworthy of attention, and adherence to traditions was considered a sign of backwardness. At present, the situation has changed radically. World-famous scientists, for example, C. Baudriard and M. Maffisoli talk about the "revival" of ancient traditional culture. P. Barthes used the concept of myth to study politics, advertising and fashion, and the prophet of the newest "technological age" of our time McLuhan believes that the future of humanity will be more like a "global village".

The humorous intonation of the author should not be misleading, because the problem, in fact, is not as innocent as it seems. Suffice it to recall such phenomena as national xenophobia and religious fundamentalism, mysticism, the popularity of various sects, etc. To what extent can all these phenomena be considered “new” or “traditional” and what exactly do they mean? Who is the real subject of these social and cultural practices? Apparently, some forms of ancient culture, previously considered "remnants of the past", play a very important and not entirely clear role in the life of modern man. In this regard, it is important to clarify the semantic boundaries of the concepts of "Tradition" and "Traditional culture".

Within the framework of this large topic, it makes sense to highlight three theoretical research questions:

1) What should be called traditional culture, what phenomena are associated with it?

2) What is the relationship between traditional culture and modern culture?

3) What direction is traditional culture developing today?

These questions have a very specific meaning from the point of view of applied sociology. What influence do traditional images and symbols (folklore, folklore, ritual, magical) cultures have on the processes of socialization and education of the individual, the formation of collective consciousness, identity? It is also important to understand what changes are taking place in modern artistic practice, how to preserve traditional culture, develop it in modern conditions and pass it on to future generations. All this makes us take a fresh look at theoretical questions that seem to have been resolved long ago. Neither M. Weber nor his closest contemporaries interpreted these model categories in the spirit of a one-sided progressive evolutionary scheme, for example, as signs of "ancient" and "modern" culture.

The classics of social thought were well aware that they draw material for their constructions from the existing reality, and therefore both specific types characterize different aspects and characteristics of modern society. In general, Weber was alien to the spirit of Christian history which he clearly saw in Hegel and partly in Marx. Therefore, he always emphasized that "ideal types" are abstract theoretical concepts, hypothetical structures which should be distinguished from the empirical generalizations of the social sciences, and from the concepts of philosophy and ideology. Max Weber is a famous German sociologist, historian, philosopher and political economist. Thanks to his ideas, social sciences, especially sociology, began to develop in a new way. Max Weber, as well as Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim were among the founders of the social sciences.

His work in social research, social theories, and the discipline of sociology itself helps to rationalize and "frustrate" physical and social laws. Max Weber, together with his assistant George Simmel, created a systematic anti-Semitism, according to which sociology is a non-experimental field, and it's time to move away from the natural sciences and go your own way [2].

Weber's theory was simplified and many modern theories appeared. From the point of view of the most popular interpretations of modernization theory, the development of modern industrial industry, transport, communications, the world market and urbanization should lead to a widespread displacement of traditional culture to the periphery of public life. Irrationality should be replaced by rationality, anonymous and impersonal forms of culture – author's and personal; oral transmission of traditions and customs should be replaced through the system of civic education, quality management system, etc. [2].

By the end of the twentieth century, social theorists began to re-examine some of the most hated aspects of modernization theory, realizing that it did not explain many real historical phenomena and modern problems of social development. The Western world known thanks to S. Eisenstadt draws the following important conclusions:

1. Direct imitation of modernization leads to destruction, chaos in society, social unrest, backwards reforms.

2. In the process of modernization, a special role is played by spiritual values, labor orientations, "symbolic" and mental structures that have developed in society.

3. Modernization is accompanied by the revival of the former spiritual heritage which is of great importance for ensuring the independence and identity of society.

4. The nature of established state institutions and elites, their degree of receptivity to new developments and their ability to maintain stability are of great importance.

S. Eisenstadt was born in the family of Mikhail Eisenstadt and Rosa Porokhin. In the early 1930s, he moved to Jerusalem with his widowed mother. In 1940 he entered the Hebrew University, graduated from the Faculty of Sociology. The main direction of research is the comparative study of the civilizations of the West and the East in the context of the transition from traditional to modern societies. In this sense, he is interested in the problems of initiative groups and protest movements that represent the ideas of social change, the mechanisms of institutionalization and reproduction of changes, including from generation to generation. Eisenstadt as a sociologist was formed under the influence of structural functionalism, one of his teachers was Edward Shiels. He developed Max Weber's ideas about charisma and its role in the formation of social institutions, Karl Jaspers' ideas about the turning point. It turns out that the theory of modernization does not "work" well not only in relation to the so-called catching up countries, but also in relation to Western society itself. It turned out to be more homogeneous in social, economic and cultural terms than previously thought [3].

In his work "The System of Things" (1968), J. Baudrillard noted that advertising in modern society plays the role of "moral and political ideologies of the past." Jean Baudrillard was a French philosopher, cultural critic and sociologist who wrote a number of important contemporary postmodern works. Excerpts from published works and from interviews with journalists became popular and were made public. The philosophy of Jean Baudrillard is based on several basic ideas. Such a concept as hyperrealism based on the simulation of life was introduced into scientific terminology. The units of this reality are simulations, i.e. signs or symbols that only refer to certain images and are therefore recognized as simulations. The philosopher generalized the idea of ​​three levels of modeling: normal transcription, functional transcription and modeling. The third type includes public opinion, fashion, money – that is, symbolic concepts. Considering mass culture on an equal base with such phenomena as myth, religion and ideology, it is impossible to notice that in terms of its potential for social mobilization it surpasses everything that was known before. It does not matter what individuals think – it is important that they use the same channels of communication. It unites society not with the help of ideas, but with the help of technology. As a result, popular culture is selective and carnivorous [1].

 

References:
1. Бодрийяр Ж. Система вещей / Пер. С. Н. Зенкин, М.: «РУДОМИНО», 2001. – 95 с.
2. Вебер М. Социальные причины падения античной культуры / Вебер М. Избранное. Образ общества. Пер. с нем. – М.: Юрист, 1994. – С. 447-466.
3. Эйзенштадт С. Базовые характеристики модернизации / Пер. с англ. В. Г. Николаева. Социологическая классика. – Р. 1996. – С. 1-19.