Статья:

ARTISTIC DESIGNING AND MODELING "GOLDEN SUNFLOWER"

Журнал: Научный журнал «Студенческий форум» выпуск №16(239)

Рубрика: Искусствоведение

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Dolgopolov I.I. ARTISTIC DESIGNING AND MODELING "GOLDEN SUNFLOWER" // Студенческий форум: электрон. научн. журн. 2023. № 16(239). URL: https://nauchforum.ru/journal/stud/239/125814 (дата обращения: 19.05.2024).
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ARTISTIC DESIGNING AND MODELING "GOLDEN SUNFLOWER"

Dolgopolov Ivan Igorevich
Student, Belgorod State National Research University, Russia, Belgorod
Buzina Evgenia Igorevna
научный руководитель, Scientific adviser, Belgorod State National Research University, Russia, Belgorod

 

Origami is a wonderful, mysterious word. Almost everyone is familiar with origami, although not all of us have heard this foreign word. Origami literally means "paper crafts. More our grandparents made of paper and cardboard all sorts of things, although the concept they are not familiar with it was not. They were paper toys: ships, airplanes, paper hats and caps that protect the head from the sun, and original souvenirs from paper.

Origami - a technique of obtaining crafts from paper by bending it many times in different directions. This technique was invented in Japan. "The name "origami" comes from two Japanese words: "ori" - to bend and "gami" - paper. The art of folding comes from ancient times, from a time when in the minds of people there was no distinction between animate and inanimate nature. Apparently then, along with gohei, tate, noshi and katashiro, there were also sambo boxes, in which they put small pieces of vegetables and fish, offering them as a sacrifice. Sambo in Japan was very closely related to religion, in the beginning (about a few centuries ago), the art of origami existed as a temple, is extremely regulated on the technique of performance. Origami refers to a type of artistic design and modeling from paper which will help to show willingness to show those or other artistic abilities.

The relevance of this theme is associated with the development of human society and the revision of the system of life and artistic and aesthetic values. And one of the most important subjects here is fine art, which is an important means of aesthetic development and formation of elements of artistic thinking, as well as design abilities. Great popularity around the world uses the art of origami, which leaves no one indifferent. Constructing the type of origami develops imagination, fantasy, motor hand, spatial thinking, brings up the aesthetic taste, will, accuracy, diligence, which involves studying the use of origami for research. The incentive for creativity in this activity is the desire to create a figure from paper, and the process of turning a sheet of paper into a toy contributes to the creation of didactic problem for which it is necessary to activate the thought processes: to understand and formulate its essence, to find ways of solution, to evaluate the obtained result.

1.1. HISTORY OF ORIGAMI

History of origami begins in Japan. The very first pieces of paper, folded into figures, first appeared in monasteries. In Japanese "God" and "paper" sound the same. Therefore, such figures made of paper had a symbolic meaning. They decorated temples, they participated in religious ceremonies, they were placed on the sacrificial pyre. Origami history has kept us the first paper figures - boxes "sanbo", where the Japanese put pieces of vegetables and fish for sacrifice. It was not a true art. It was just a piece of paper, marked the name of the god and was worth a lot of money at that time.

History of origami probably has long been forgotten by the Japanese, but they gave the technique of folding the first planes, animal figures and amazing flowers is pleasing to the world today. Many of the history of origami owes Japanese master Akiro Yoshizavu.

It was he who started to put the first, until then unknown, the figures of paper, among which were frogs, fish, cranes, and many others.

In Europe there are not many facts about the development of paper art. But, nevertheless, we know that the Arabs began to do origami in the 8 th century, the Moors "introduced" the Spaniards to this art in the 9 th century. Germans began to fold figures in the 15th century. Like the Japanese, origami was used for ceremonies. In Europe, origami became popular only in the 17-18 century. By this time there were many classical models. But in the early 19th century art of origami has received a new round of popularity and development, all thanks to Friedrich Froebel, who offered to introduce classes in kindergartens to develop motor skills.

Since the 1960's art of origami has spread around the world. During this period, there was such a variety as modular origami. Today, this art has acquired international significance, around the world opened hundreds of schools and clubs.

In 1937 in London, was published Europe's first book on origami "Making paper toys. Its author was Margaret Campbell. Thanks to her, it became easier to fold origami crafts such as "bird", "water bomb" and "frog. And in 1946 an English children's magazine published a scheme of folding a crane.

1.2. TYPES AND FORMS OF ORIGAMI

Origami - a whole world that can be expressed through the soul and the paper. With it you can get different types of crafts: three-dimensional, flat, complex in structure.

1- Ordinary origami

Ordinary origami is a style that was invented by British amateurs. The purpose of this origami is to facilitate the occupation of people who are just delving into the wonderful world of paper art. In addition, simple origami is also suitable for people with limited movement skills.

2- Classical origami

If we talk about the classic origami, it uses a single square evenly colored piece of paper without scissors and glue. Of it collect a variety of shapes - the traditional planes, ships, cranes, frogs, flowers, muzzles of animals.

3- Children's origami

Children by nature are big dreamers and creators. A great opportunity to give them a magical world in which they can show their bubbling imagination and distract from pranks. Children's origami - it is also a useful activity that develops motor skills, logical, spatial thinking and dexterity. There are a lot of origami schemes for children, which uses plain colored, single-sided paper. Bring figures alive, you can, dorisovavshaya or gluing them out of colored paper eyes, nose and mouth.

4-Modular origami: making.

This kind of origami came much later than the classic. But today the modular origami is in the first place in popularity, allowing adults and children to make amazing garlands, mosaics and make real sculptural compositions. The basis of modular blanks, which are composed of pieces of paper. Modules can be three-dimensional and flat. Binding them together, you can get any figure.

5- Art Kusudama

A kind of modular origami, in which the entire figure is collected from a set of identical modules. Each part is composed according to all the canons of the classics of a single sheet. Because the parts are connected by inserting them into each other. It is often a spherical body. In ancient times it was made as a medicine ball, where herbal compounds, all sorts of mixtures of petals and incense were placed, which was associated with the name. Today, however, they are used as decorative objects. And also: folding to unfold, wet folding.

1.3. MATERIALS FOR ORIGAMI

1 - Office paper

For a modular origami most suitable office paper as it is not too smooth and fairly dense, modules are well held together and there is no slipping when connecting. Office paper of different colors is colored on both sides and the folds do not turn white.

2 - Blocks for notes (stickers)

 For the module and are used square stickers. Folded triangular modules are usually made of pieces of paper of rectangular shape. The ratio of sides of a rectangular piece of paper is 2:3. However, you can use a square cut in half. Sam module will be thicker, which is good for some items.

3 - Paper for origami.

In Japanese, a special paper for origami is called "kami". Sheets are already cut into square shapes, but the size of the sheet can vary. In such a set of paper there are several colors of paper, one side of the sheet is usually white or colored on both sides.

4- Colored paper for children's art

Such paper before use should be checked for strength on the folds. For a modular origami, you need a lot of paper of one color, and in these sets are mainly a few sheets of the same color. Sometimes it is difficult to find a black or brown paper, it will have to use this set.

5- Journal paper

For modular origami excellent paper from modern glossy magazines. It is desirable to choose not very thin paper. Sorting modules by color, you get interesting scenic effects in the assembled product.

1.4. ORIGAMI IN RUSSIA

The development of origami in Russia goes back to antiquity, but the exact answer when it took shape is not known.  The appearance of technology was supposedly in July 1580, when the Russian Empire has decided to colonize Siberia, in a clash between the two countries, the exchange of cultures. There is reliable evidence that Leo Tolstoy knew how to fold various figures from paper and devoted a lot of time to it. Found his manuscript, where he mentions that a woman taught him to make cockerels from paper, which is native to Japan. These "creatures" very funny waving their wings when they were tugged on the tail. Tolstoy wrote that in the future, everyone to whom he showed how to fold this figure, came to the delight of what he saw.

If we talk about later years, the development of origami in Russia has gone so rapidly that during the Soviet Union was not a single schoolboy who could not fold paper boat, airplane, cup and many other subjects. Russian experts and propagandists of origami - Yuri and Catherine Shumakov, psychologists by profession, have discovered that origami is not only an interesting entertainment, but also a useful activity in which there is a natural massage the fingertips of the hands, developing mobility and precision movements of the fingers of both right and left hand. This is a unique tool for developing fine motor skills and increasing finger sensitivity. Active work on both hands leads to increased activity of the brain hemispheres and develops not only the left hemisphere, responsible for logic and speech, but also the right, responsible for creativity, intuition and imagination.

Classes in origami contribute to the development of spatial imagination, short-range vision, attention, memory, imagination and creative thinking. Origami around the world is becoming a popular family entertainment. Joint production of paper figures brings joy to adults and children, contributes to better understanding and peace in the family. Toys made of colored paper - a good holiday decorations and gifts.

Important role played by origami and in the field of formal etiquette. Gifts given during various ceremonies and holidays, could be wrapped in a dozen different ways, each of which carries a certain value. And at weddings and funeral ceremonies, elaborately folded paper ornaments were used.

2.1. CHOICE OF WORK

The choice of the sunflower as a base for my work is not random. It was carried out on my preferences and history of my hometown. It was depicted in different techniques and materials. After all, the sunflower is the symbol of my city, as in my city was invented by Daniil Semenovich Bokarev, the first sunflower oil. Sunflower itself is quite a beautiful plant, according to one of the ancient legends the gods gave people a sunflower so that the sun never left them. Sunflowers always face the sun, in any weather, even on the foggiest and rainiest day. It is no coincidence that the sunflower became a symbol of sun, joy and optimism, as well as - loyalty and dignity, and it seemed to me that in this technique it will be transformed.

The sunflower itself in the work has three flowers. The large central one has eight rows and the two small side ones have seven rows. Also at the flowers are colored rim with leaves, which have four rows of modules. In the color palette of sunflowers consists of light ochre, yellow, green, orange and red shades.

In the process of assembling the sunflower there is nothing difficult. Difficult is precisely the monotony of preparing the work. In order to make a sunflower is necessary to prepare the paper and the very image of the flower. In preparing the module, the difficulty is the monotony of assembling dozens of identical parts. The principle of assembling a module is partitioning and dividing the paper into equal parts of the module, consistently folded corners will give the very shape of the module. First, you need to fold a rectangle in half, after folding the top corners, parallel to each other into a triangle to form three shapes: a triangle at the top and two rectangles at the bottom. The second final part is the bending of the opposite corners of the rectangles, then fold them under the triangle and fold it in half. Once you have made a pair of modules, you can connect them by inserting one into the other, so a chain of parts will be made, forming a volume of work.

2.3 THE BASIS.

For every voluminous work, there must be a base, which leads to stylization and the search for appropriate staging options for the subject matter. Basics can be: a rod, a canvas, a wall, a pole, and more. This leads to a more responsible and careful choice of material, as well as the primary form of the blank. To work on this project, the choice fell on a simple stem from a snow shovel, as it fits the thickness, more suitable in appearance, as the central stem of the sunflower, as well as wood is easy to handle and does not require unnecessary fixtures and machines. To connect the flowers to the stem, we drill holes and insert spokes in the right directions, which can easily withstand their weight, as well as can plastically bend for greater liveliness in the work, then with nuts, washers and a cardboard circle, a certain place is created for convenient connection and fastening. In order that the staging would not fall to the floor, a cross piece has been made using joinery glue and suitable wood.

2.3. ASSEMBLY

Undoubtedly one of the main stages in any work, is to assemble the whole structure in one piece, as well as decorating and full manifestation of the staging. Before we put everything together, we must create an external decorative trim on certain parts. The material used is a thin, white foam rubber. Which we will paint with a spray paint can, the color palette will be simple, light green - stem and connections with flowers; dark green - grass, leaves, crosshairs. After enveloping the stem with glue. Next, cut out the desired shape of grass, you need to glue on the sides of the crosshairs, and what would not have been visible to the top of the stand, we create a not large spiral of six skeins, set in the center and do spiral ovals, which we place in a free cavity, it all gives the effect of volume and living vegetation. Just do not forget about the leaves, which we will cut from the same material with separate shapes, sizes, also glued in different directions and heights. Finally coming to the end of the work, we attach the flowers on their own, already made mounts. At your discretion you can add decorations in the form of: bugs, pebbles, sprouts and so on. Having finished decorating, carefully check whether everything is in place, what fits, and what is better to remove. Regardless, your work will be finished when you yourself consider it so.

CONCLUSION

The development of artistic and creative abilities is one of the main goals of modern pedagogical science. Extensive development in this direction should get an introduction to culture and art, involving them in artistic and creative activities.

Self-training in technical methods of artistic design and modeling is aimed at the development of abilities in the field of arts and crafts. The study of construction in the origami technique is the method by which the fundamental scientific knowledge of decorative art is laid down, art-generalized ideas about the surrounding objects are formed. The principles of artistic design and modeling are based on the step-by-step fulfillment of the work.

The peculiarities of design skills in the process of decorative and applied works are formulated and defined.  In order to effectively master the methods of artistic design and modeling in the process of creating a product, it is necessary to implement the formation of theoretical knowledge in the field of graphic literacy and decorative creativity.

Certain success in learning the methods of artistic design and modeling can be achieved if the methodologically competent build the learning process, using a variety of visual learning tools, using active forms and methods of teaching. The consecutive organization of studying themes and performing tasks and exercises in origami provides artistic progressive development and the ability to use acquired knowledge and skills in the process of training and creative work. Conducted creative work contributed to the formation of appropriate knowledge and the development of skills and abilities in the performance of artistic design and modeling.

 

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