Журнал: Научный журнал «Студенческий форум» выпуск №8(187)

Рубрика: Психология

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Shamshieva R. CHILD PSYCHOLOGICAL TRAUMAS AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE STUDENT’S PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT // Студенческий форум: электрон. научн. журн. 2022. № 8(187). URL: https://nauchforum.ru/journal/stud/187/106407 (дата обращения: 13.04.2024).
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Shamshieva Ramina
Master student, Kazakh National Pedagogical University, Kazakhstan, Almaty
Khan Natalya
научный руководитель, Doctor of Pedagogy, Professor, Kazakh National Pedagogical University, Kazakhstan, Almaty


Abstract. This article actualizes the problem of the influence of child psychological trauma on the formation and development of the personality of a person of student age. The factors that have a negative impact on such areas of a student's personality as emotional, cognitive and behavioral are analyzed. The author explains, "Returning to the experience of childhood traumas and their elaboration in the course of psychotherapeutic techniques can be an effective method of correcting the socio-psychological problems of adults associated with child psychotrauma" [1]. The main idea implemented in this work is the definition of conditions and factors that prevent the improvement and achievement of goals and heights in the development of personality. Untreated psychotrauma received in childhood may be one of these factors. Because of the analysis of foreign and domestic experience, literary sources, the author concludes that it is necessary to study children's psychotrauma, to create the necessary conditions for effective work with the negative consequences of children's psychotrauma.


Keywords: child psychological trauma, personality development, psychotherapeutic techniques, Murray method, the influence of psychotrauma.


Introduction. Recently, researchers have been concerned about the presence of a risk of psychological trauma in adults based on negative childhood experiences. Studies show that the more often traumatized in childhood, the more this fact can affect life in adulthood. The task of practicing psychologists is to identify the conditions and factors that impede the achievement of heights in personality development. Unprocessed childhood psychotrauma may be one of these factors [4]. M. Murray, a childhood trauma researcher writes: “When a child experiences a traumatic event and is unable to express his feelings, he subconsciously suppresses his pain, and over time this can cause serious physical and emotional harm. Prolonged suppression of feelings associated with a traumatic event leads to more dire consequences than the trauma itself” [5]. Researcher Donald Kalshed states that mental trauma is caused by not only external events, then the inner work of the psyche begins, and this process has a very specific dynamics. One of the main conclusions made by D. Kalshed is that “the traumatized psyche continues to injure itself,” moreover, such people constantly find themselves in life situations in which they are subjected to repeated traumatization [1]. Childhood psychotraumas not worked out in a timely manner have a complex effect on a person. Problems arise in the cognitive, emotional and behavioral spheres of the individual. Over time, psychosomatic problems may arise because of untreated childhood psychotraumas. Memory reliably preserves untapped psychological trauma. These memories subsequently form a special type of human personality, with a special type of thinking and behavior aimed at survival and avoidance. Thus, untreated psychotrauma can be the foundation of the psychologically unhealthy personality of an adult.

Analysis of publications on the research topic. Many foreign and domestic scientists have dealt with the problem of the influence of childhood psychological trauma on the further formation and development of the personality of an adult. In domestic science, E.A. Petrova, M.V. Bulanova-Toporkova, H.A. Vaskova, Dalrybvtuz; N.G. Sadova, V. B. Sokolov, E. Krishtopova and others developed these issues.

Research methodology. Since the problem of the negative impact of childhood traumas on the development of an adult's personality requires study, and as this work, an adult needs to return to the state of childhood, when there was an experience of receiving direct trauma, the Murray method proposed by an American psychologist was considered. This method is based on the concept of scindo syndrome (from the Latin "divide", to break), i.e. the theory that, as a defense mechanism in case of mental trauma or violence, the personality is divided into three different states in one person. In the first state, a person re-experiences the entire event of traumatic experience, which subsequently left a negative residue, the second state is characterized as a "crying child", where he lives all the pain of what is happening in himself, and in the third state he allows himself to control the situation, that is. It is like an internal a defense mechanism that suppresses emotions and feelings, uses techniques for pain relief and distraction from painful experiences, but at the same time allows you to build healthy personal boundaries. This method allows you to return to the state of trauma and, with the help of the third state, proposed by Murray, to complete the negative impact of the trauma received in childhood on the prospects and possibilities of an adult.

Research findings and discussion. Student age is also characterized by the fact that during this period many optima of the development of intellectual and physical forces are achieved. However, quite often the "scissors" between these possibilities and their actual realization are simultaneously manifested. Continuously increasing creative possibilities, the development of intellectual and physical forces, which are accompanied by a flourishing of external attractiveness, hide in themselves the illusion that this increase in strength will continue "forever", that the completely better life is still ahead, that everything that has been planned can be easily achieved [1].

The time of study at the university coincides with the second period of adolescence or the first period of maturity, which is characterized by the complexity of the formation of personality traits. The process analyzed in the works of such scientists as A.V. Dmitriev, I.S. Cohn, V.T. Lisovsky, Z.F. Esareva, etc.

A characteristic feature of moral development at this age is the strengthening of the conscious motives of behavior. The qualities that were not fully enough in the senior grades are noticeably strengthening: purposefulness, decisiveness, perseverance, independence, initiative, self-control. At the same time, in the second and third courses, the question often arises about the correct choice of a university, specialty, profession. By the end of the third course, this issue is finally resolved. Interest in moral issues (goals, lifestyle, duty, love, fidelity, etc.) increases.

At the same time, experts in the field of developmental psychology and physiology note that a person's ability to consciously regulate his behavior at the age of 17-19 is not fully developed. Psychological trauma is often defined as a condition caused by a stressful event that is outside the scope of normal human experience and that could clearly inflict suffering on almost anyone. This definition includes experiencing special situations.

The search for effective forms of work with child psychotrauma in adults remains relevant now. The method, created by the American psychologist Marilyn Murray, can be proposed as a proven, effective method of psychological assistance to adults who have experienced psychotraumatization in childhood. The method is based on the idea of ​​the scindo syndrome (from the Latin "divide", tear), i.e. the theory that, as a protective mechanism in case of mental trauma or violence, there is, as it were, a separation of the personality into three different creatures in one person. That is, when experiencing psychological trauma that cause painful emotions, three types of subpersonality are formed:

  • “The original child (emotional, undivided integrity of a person, his essence, abilities, potential, desires, etc.);
  • a crying child (it is a consequence of negative influence from the outside and carries painful feelings, experiences, as well as the ability to empathize with others);
  • a controlling child (an internal defense mechanism that suppresses emotions and feelings, uses the techniques of pain relief and distraction from painful experiences, but at the same time allows you to build healthy personal boundaries) ”[4, p.13-14].

These types of subpersonalities can be unbalanced, for example, each adult who has experienced psychotraumatization can have his own, unique ratio of these three elements. Most often, either the crying child or the controlling child becomes dominant. The dominance of any subpersonality forms a special type of adult behavior and a special type of reactions to painful experiences in the present. The goal of the Murray method is to achieve the integrity of the personality, this integrity is defined by the author of the method as "Healthy balanced personality."“A healthy, balanced personality is a full-fledged personality that can experience deep feelings, and at the same time maintain common sense, make informed decisions and be responsible for them, it unites three subpersonalities in a balanced union. This type of personality is formed throughout a person's life and embodies his maturity” [4, p.17]. In the course of work on the Murray method, there is a study of childhood psychotraumas. For this, elements of regressive therapy, art therapy and cognitive-behavioral techniques are used. Personal growth and alignment of interpersonal relationships take place in the context of healing trauma, violence, and deprivation. That is, the negative events of the past become the starting point from which therapy begins. As a result of the work, after returning to the experiences of the past and working through the traumatic events, a significant improvement in the person's condition occurs.

Based on the observations of foreign researchers, a person in adolescence can be characterized as a person from three sides:

  • Of the psychic, that is the unity of psychological processes, states and personality traits. The main thing on the psychological side are mental properties (orientation, temperament, character, abilities), on which the course of mental processes, the emergence of mental states and the manifestation of mental formations depend.
  • Social, in which social relations are embodied, characteristics determined by membership of a particular social group, nationality, etc.
  • Of biological, including the type of higher nervous activity, the structure of the analyzers, unconditional reflexes, instincts, physical strength, physique, facial features, skin color, eyes, height, and so on. This side is determined by heredity and innate tendencies, but changes within certain limits under the influence of living conditions. [1].

If we study a student as a person, then the age of 18-20 years is the time of the most active development of moral and aesthetic feelings, the formation and stabilization of character and, most importantly, mastery of the full range of social roles Adults : civil, professional, labor, etc. This period is associated with the beginning of "economic activity", through which demographers understand a person's involvement in independent production activities, the beginning of a work biography and the creation of a family of their own. The transformation of motivation, the whole system of value orientations on the one hand, the intensive training of special skills related to professionalization on the other, characterize this age as a central period of character and intelligence development. This is the time of sports records, the beginning of artistic, technical and scientific achievements.

The manifestation of traumatic events in each person is individual. Different people may experience different reactions to a similar trauma. T.N. Strabachina writes: "Human problems can only look alike from the outside, but since they arise, develop, exist in the context of a unique human life; the problems themselves are actually unique" [7, p. 36]. Pathological stress reactions due to trauma are attempts to recreate the old worldview in a slightly modified form, which do not lead to success. Thus, a person changes the cognitive schemes for judging reality and continues to live in a distorted world. Researchers also ask the question of "cognitive complexity" - does the worldview become simpler or more complex after psychological trauma? It can be assumed that some characteristics make understanding the world easier - building a clearer hierarchy of values, a greater awareness of what is important and what is not. On the other hand, assessments and judgments become less transparent; a person understands that anything can happen, but the fragility of being does not lead to the idea of ​​the uselessness of the world and the uselessness of existence.

As a result, it can be assumed that the sooner a traumatic event occurs, the more distortions and transformations cognitive schemas acquire for judging reality. The patterns established in childhood often persist into adulthood. For example, an adult can sometimes work on a child's cognitive schemas formed in response to trauma. Since there is an accumulation of negative states and cognitive errors in judging reality, “...there is a negative cumulative effect, a weakening of personal resources. The resulting shortage of this resource leads to a decrease in stability, the individual's resistance to the negative effects of adverse external conditions "[8, p. 54]. The current situation may affect the degree of adaptation to the society and personal self-realization. Researchers have always been interested in how previous trauma affects an adult's personality. Peter Levine writes: “When an animal (be it a lion, a dog, a deer, a horse, a bird or a lizard) is in danger, its brain immediately generates an unusual amount of energy - like adrenaline buckwheat. This creates an accelerated heart rate and other bodily changes so that the body can defend itself. It was therefore fully mobilized to address life-threatening conditions. Unused energy does not disappear by itself: it creates a traumatic reaction” [3, p. 60]. Therefore, Peter Levin believes that the less energy resources are spent in a dangerous situation, the more they will stay and the more likely they are to develop traumatic signs in the future.

Z. Freud says in his book: “Trauma does not always manifest itself in pure form, as a painful memory or as an experience”. It becomes as if it were “the cause of the disease” and causes symptoms (e.g., tics, stuttering, obsessions, etc.), “which remain unchanged, then, by gaining independence” [8, p. 20]. In addition, Freud made an analogy between mental and physical trauma: "Mental trauma or the memory of it acts as a foreign body, which remains an active factor for a long time after entering it" [2, p. 22]

There are some of the psychological traumas have a direct impact on student performance:

  • psychological discomfort associated with problems in the parent-child relationship;
  • problems in the peer group that started during the school period.

It should be noted that the injuries from the second group are balanced in the team of high school students: if the "nerves" of high school tend to irritate and harass. Then in high school everything happens the other way around - students who exercise well and easily learns to enjoy authority and respect in a team, so that they gradually get rid of negative school memories [6].

The situation is much worse with the psychological trauma of the first group - those related to family relationships. Such injuries, in turn, are divided into several types:

  • parents and / or other relatives place too high an expectation on the child;
  • parents and / or other relatives convince the child that he / she is completely absent
  • talents and talents of all kinds;
  • over-protection from parents;
  • lack of parental attention [6].

If the child is given too high a hope, he is afraid that he will not live up to that hope. In addition, the child's abilities do not always correspond to the views of his or her relatives. For example, they may consider him a genius in practice, even though his academic abilities are quite modest. In addition, the offspring may require occupational relatives, who compel him to enter the relevant university for a particular specialty and whose interests are in a completely different field. In these cases it is not necessary to expect good academic performance, even if the student has sufficient abilities to be practically an excellent student. But pressure from relatives will prevent this, especially if the student does not want his or her relatives to choose this specialty. In the event of overprotection, everything will be done to get rid of the intrusive attention of loved ones, and this may be a failed session, abandoned studies - all to prove their complete independence and independence from relatives.

Conclusions. It is important to keep in mind that trauma is not a “life sentence” but a real event that can be turned into a blessing that can help change a person’s quality of life, change their personality, their belt, restore and increase their vitality and abilities. Examining aspects of the learner’s personality development, such as psychological, social, biological, it can be concluded that these aspects reveal the learner’s characteristics, abilities, age, and personal characteristics in the response phase to signs, the optimum. absolute and differential sensitivity. Analysts, high plasticity in the development of complex psychomotor skills, etc.

Compared to other adolescents, changes in working memory and attention during adolescence, solving verbal and logical tasks, etc. acceleration is observed. Therefore, the age of the learner is characterized by the achievement of maximum and “maximum” outcomes based on all previous biological, psychological, and social developmental processes.


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