Журнал: Научный журнал «Студенческий форум» выпуск №15(194)

Рубрика: История и археология

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Fedko I. THE ROLE OF HOPE DUROVOY IN THE PATRIOTIC WAR OF 1812 // Студенческий форум: электрон. научн. журн. 2022. № 15(194). URL: https://nauchforum.ru/journal/stud/194/109674 (дата обращения: 14.04.2024).
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Fedko Irina
Student, Belgorod State National Research University, Russia, Belgorod
Shemaeva Elena
научный руководитель, Scientific director, Candidate of Philology, Belgorod State National Research University, Russia, Belgorod


Today, in domestic and foreign historical science and related disciplines, there is increased attention to the role of women during the war. Women, like men, carried on their shoulders the whole burden of a terrible war. Each woman, in her own way, made her small contribution to the victory.

The name of Nadezhda Durova is mentioned along with such names as Napoleon, Alexander I, M.I. Kutuzov, P.I. Bagration, M.B. Barclay de Tolly, Denis Davydov. Nadezhda Durov was called by many “the Russian Joan of Arc, she was favored by Emperor Alexander I and Field Marshal M.I.Kutuzov admired V. G. Belinsky and A. S. Pushkin for her military courage and incredible courage. While on military campaigns, Nadezhda Durova kept notes, describing her life and impressions [4, p. 5].

Nadezhda Durova was born in the city of Kyiv in 1783. Nadezhda herself did not know her birthday, writing in her notes: “My father did not record this anywhere,” she informs the historian who compiled her biography. Yes, it doesn't seem to be necessary. You can set the day you want” [3, p. 6]. Father - Andrei Durov - was a military man, served in the Poltava Light Horse Regiment as a captain. Nadezhda's mother married Durov without parental blessing, against their will. The mother treated the newborn girl very coldly and with disdain: “During the trip, exhausted by the cries of the child, the mother threw him out of the carriage window.” [3, C. 4].

Already from childhood, Nadezhda was distinguished by her courage and courage; in her youth, she already “set herself the goal of learning horseback riding, owning weapons and joining the military service.” [3, p. 4]. She believed that living the life of a woman was the worst of fates and dreamed of completely changing it. Nadezhda decided to leave her parental home and joined the Don Cossack regiment of Major Stepan Balabin 2nd. She introduced herself as Alexander Durov. And already in March 1807, the imaginary Alexander enlisted as a private in the Konnopolsky Lancers Regiment under the command of Captain Kazimirsky under the name of Alexander Vasilyevich Sokolov [5, p. 12].In each of the battles in which Nadezhda took part under the guise of a man, she put into practice all the knowledge gained in childhood, and showed her stamina and courage. It was in the battle of Gutstadt that Nadezhda showed her courage, because she saved a wounded soldier and carried him out of the shelling. This feat was noted by Emperor Alexander I himself. In addition, Nadia was a very lucky soldier, since in the battle of Heilsberg the girl was almost killed by a fragment of an exploding shell.

Alexander I was amazed at the courage of this girl, but considered the presence of a woman in the troops wrong and tried to send her home. But Nadezhda Durova could not come to terms with this and tearfully begged not to send her home: “What do you want?” Alexander asked in bewilderment. “Be a warrior, carry a weapon! This is my only desire, sire!..” [4, p. 134]. Fortunately for her, the emperor reacted with empathy and understanding to her request and was surprised by her thirst to defend the fatherland. He decided to leave her to serve in the ranks of the Russian troops and gave her the name of Alexander Andreevich Alexandrov, which she bore until her death.

Nadezhda Durova served in the Mariupol regiment until 1811, but she had to transfer to another place. By 1812, namely, by the beginning of the war, Nadezhda was transferred to the Lithuanian Lancers Regiment. As part of this regiment, she participated in the battles of the Patriotic War and was promoted to the rank of lieutenant. Nadezhda Durova was an adjutant (orderly) of Field Marshal M.I. Kutuzov, and also went with him to Tarutin. In addition, she participated in the campaigns of 1813-1814, markedly distinguished herself during the blockade of the

Fearless and courageous Nadezhda went through the whole war. She also took part in the Battle of Borodino, in which she was wounded in the leg: “Nadezhda, getting off her horse, hobbled to the hut, leaning on her saber. The gray hiking trousers on the left leg above the knee were torn... The wound hurt unbearably... Apparently, it was hit by a canister bullet, passing along a tangent and leaving a deep ragged mark on the skin” [1, p. 78]. But Nadia decided not to leave the battlefield and fought steadfastly to the end. There are opinions that Nadezhda did not want to go to the doctors because she was afraid that they might reveal her secret. Having recovered in her father's house, the restless Nadezhda again returned to the service and took part in the battles in Poland and Germany.

Ultimately, Nadezhda Durova served ten years and retired with the rank of staff captain. “The retired staff captain lived for several years in the city on the Neva, a year in Ukraine, then in Sarapul. In 1841 she finally settled in the city of Yelabuga” [8, p. 144].Thus, it can be summed up that women in the war play no less important role than men. We were convinced of this by the example of Nadezhda Durova.


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