Журнал: Научный журнал «Студенческий форум» выпуск №19(286)

Рубрика: Филология

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Darbayeva A. TEACHING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE TO STUDENTS WITH SPEECH IMPAIRMENTS // Студенческий форум: электрон. научн. журн. 2024. № 19(286). URL: https://nauchforum.ru/journal/stud/286/148927 (дата обращения: 20.07.2024).
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Darbayeva Aikumys
Student, Akhmet Baitursynuly Kostanay Regional University, Kazakhstan, Kostanay
Ivanova Yelena
научный руководитель, Scientific adviser, Master of Pedagogical Sciences, Akhmet Baitursynuly Kostanay Regional University, Kazakhstan, Kostanay


Abstract. Teaching a foreign language to students with speech impairments presents unique challenges and requires specialized approaches. Speech impairments can impact various aspects of language learning, including pronunciation, fluency, vocabulary, and grammar. However, with appropriate modifications and support, students with speech impairments can successfully learn and communicate in a foreign language.


Keywords: foreign language, speech impairments, inclusive education.


The problem of inclusive education of students with developmental disabilities has become very acute in the last decade due to the development of innovative teaching technologies and the desire of special students to be actively involved in social life. Inclusive education of students with developmental disabilities is increasingly becoming part of the professional life of not only special teachers and correctional centers, but also specialists in specialized subjects. Unfortunately, it often happens that students with disabilities drop out of the general educational process, since in order to work with them, teachers must have the necessary knowledge in the field of correctional and special pedagogy.

Mechanisms of speech are preserved.

Among the causes of speech disorders, biological and social factors are distinguished. Biological causes are pathogenic factors that act mainly during the period of intrauterine development and childbirth (fetal hypoxia, birth injuries, etc.), as well as in the first months of life after birth (brain infections, injuries, etc.). A special role in the development of speech disorders is played by such factors as family history of speech disorders, left-handedness and right-handedness. Social and psychological risk factors are associated mainly with mental deprivation of students (adverse effects that occur in life situations). Of particular importance is the lack of emotional and verbal communication between the child and adults.

Speech impairments may manifest as problems with pronunciation; grammatical structure of speech; poverty of vocabulary; pace and fluency of speech.

Currently, there is no unified classification of speech disorders. Attempts to create it have been made throughout the history of the development of speech therapy as a science and field of practical activity. For practical purposes, a distinction between the types of variants of speech disorders (typology) is more suitable.

Oral speech disorders:

1. Disorders of phonation of utterances:

 alexia – reading disorder or reading comprehension;

 aphonia (dysphonia) - defect in the pronunciation of sounds;

 bradilalia - unnatural slowing down of pace;

- dysarthria - underdevelopment of the nerve connecting the speech apparatus and the brain;

 dyslalia - phonetic defects appear;

 dyslexia - the same type of mistakes are made when reading;

 stuttering - intermittent rhythm, lack of smoothness;

- rhinolalia - timbre pathologies;

- tachylalia - speech that is too fast.

2. Violations of the structural-semantic (internal) design of the statement:

- alalia - underdevelopment of speech due to brain damage;

 aphasia - loss of speech due to lesions of the central nervous system.

Writing disorders

- agraphia - loss of the ability to write while maintaining intelligence and without disorder of coordination of movements of the upper limbs;

 dysgraphia is a partial disruption of the writing process, manifested in persistent, repeated errors caused by the immaturity of the higher mental functions involved in the writing process.

The pedagogical science of speech therapy, as well as related sciences of the medical cycle (neurophysiology, neurology, otolaryngology, dentistry, etc.), deals with the study and overcoming of speech disorders in students and adults.

Speech therapy is the science of speech disorders, methods of identifying and eliminating them through special training and education. Speech therapy studies the causes, symptoms, course, structure of speech disorders, and the system of correctional interventions. The term “speech therapy” comes from the Greek roots “logos” (word) and “paideo” (educate, teach) - and translated means “education of correct speech.” The subject of speech therapy as a science is speech disorders and the process of training and education of persons with speech disorders. The goal of speech therapy is to develop a scientifically based system of training, education and re-education of people with speech disorders, as well as the prevention of speech disorders. Thus, speech therapy is a special section of pedagogy, which is aimed at the study, education and training of students, adolescents and adults suffering from speech pathology.

Characteristics of typical disorders:  disorders of communicative, informational, regulatory, cognitive functions of speech; - violation of speech and thinking activity; - violations of personality formation, emotional-volitional sphere, behavior; - decreased strength and mobility of nervous processes; - disharmony of physical development, impaired coordination of movements; - delayed motor development; - sensory deviations.

Psychological and pedagogical characteristics of persons with severe speech impairments:

- aggressiveness,

- negativism,

- instability of interests,

- lack of self-confidence,

- touchiness,

- increased irritability,

- decreased observation,

- decreased motivation,

- difficulties in communicating with others,

- difficulties in forming self-regulation and self-control.

Features of the development of the cognitive sphere: the first 3 years of life are of decisive importance for the development of speech activity, as babbling appears. In students with alalia (underdevelopment of speech due to brain damage), it is absent or extremely poor, or its onset is later. Nonverbal means of communication (facial expressions, gestures) are actively developing. In students with SLI, there is a delay in the appearance of the first words and phrases.

Sensations and perception: impairment of phonemic awareness is observed in all persons with speech impairments. The visual perception of preschool students with speech pathology lags behind the norm in development and is characterized by insufficient formation of a holistic image of an object. There is a violation of support-spatial gnosis (recognition), necessary for learning to read and write. In alaliks (underdevelopment of speech due to brain damage) the dynamics of the development of spatial perception is underestimated. Students with general speech underdevelopment have a low level of development of letter gnosis (recognition).

Attention: unstable, low level of voluntary attention, difficulties in planning one’s actions, difficulty focusing on analyzing conditions, searching for various ways and means in solving problems. In students with speech disorders, attention errors are present throughout the entire work. A low level of voluntary attention in students with SLI leads to an unformed structure of activity.

Memory: the volume of visual memory is practically no different from the norm, but there are pronounced disturbances in the perception of shape and weakness of spatial concepts. Motor alaliks (underdevelopment of speech due to brain damage) have reduced auditory memory and memorization productivity.

Thinking and imagination: according to the state of non-verbal intelligence, persons with speech impairments are divided into 3 groups. Development of nonverbal intelligence:

1) different from the norm,

2) corresponds to the norm,

3) corresponds to the lower limit of the norm, but is characterized by instability.

Disturbances in self-organization are noted, an insufficient amount of information about the environment is detected, they begin to complete the task very quickly or, conversely, have difficulty mastering synthesis, analysis, and comparison; lower level of spatial image processing.

Speech and communication: poverty and undifferentiation of vocabulary, originality of connected statements, which leads to a decrease in the need for communication, unformed forms of communication, disinterest in contact, inability to navigate a communication situation, negativism. Communication capabilities are noticeably limited and below normal.

Features of the emotional-volitional sphere: passivity, sensitivity, dependence on others, tendency to spontaneous behavior, lower performance. As for the awareness of a speech defect, there are 3 variants of the emotional attitude towards the defect: indifference, moderately restrained, hopelessly desperate; There are 3 variants of volitional effort in the fight against a defect: absence, presence and development into obsessive actions.

Features of the activity: is a necessary condition for the comprehensive development of personality and intelligence; weakened conditioned reflex activity, instability of memory. Violation of general and speech motor skills (dysarthria) causes rapid fatigue. Students who stutter are timid in the game and do not believe in their abilities. There are motor impairments. In educational activities, people who stutter are characterized by weak switching and reduced self-control.

A person suffering from stuttering is usually afraid to speak or speaks in a whisper, mostly limits himself to short answers, and sometimes prefers to remain silent and use gestures when communicating with others. Such a person is usually irritable, prefers loneliness, is embarrassed by his shortcomings, i.e. he is closed and does not open up, it is very difficult to find a common language with him. All this complicates the process of communication, including communication in the work team. Most likely, it is difficult for such a person to find a job in a field where communication is the main component of the profession.


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