Статья:

Genres in journalism

Журнал: Научный журнал «Студенческий форум» выпуск №18(111)

Рубрика: Филология

Выходные данные
Karamatdinova A.J. Genres in journalism // Студенческий форум: электрон. научн. журн. 2020. № 18(111). URL: https://nauchforum.ru/journal/stud/111/71091 (дата обращения: 27.02.2024).
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Genres in journalism

Karamatdinova Ayjamal Jengis kizi
Student of Uzbek State university of world languages, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

 

Keywords: genre, journalism, classification, meaning, news, material, information.

 

The main task of journalism is to provide information. However, the specialists of the sphere hold different opinions on the way, in which order it is better to provide information. Some specialists believe that information about some events should be prepared in accordance with a certain genre, while others believe that information should not be put into such genre "frames". Some even believe that there is no need for genres of journalism at present. They explain this by the fact that there is now a surplus of information and the need for it is growing. That is, at present the main question is not how to convey information, but to convey it quickly, among the first.

Many journalists believe that, in general, it is not necessary to know anything about genres when preparing journalistic material. The main reason for this is that they find it difficult to clearly distinguish genres from each other. So, why do we need genres, will they remain only in theory now?

It is known from history that journalistic genres have emerged gradually, in different periods. In particular, the genre of feuilleton appeared in the XVIII century, the history of the emergence of essays refers to the XVI-XVII centuries. Later they were divided into a number of groups. Although at the beginning their number was large, nowadays only certain types of genres are used in practice. For example, materials prepared in the reportage genre, we often meet in television journalism. And in press and radio, such journalistic works are rare. The most common genre - information (or, according to some theories, news) can be often found in all types of media. Of course, in each country all types of media have separate sections or headings "news" or "latest news", "habarlar". The main reason for the spread of the news genre is its small volume, lack of analytical and artistic details. It does not take a lot of time for the masses to read, see or hear them.

The genre determines the direction of the journalist's work. At the same time, the essence of the given thought becomes even more vivid. In this way, the journalist tries to find his own way. In particular, prominent figures of Uzbek publicism, such as Abdullah Kahhor and Abdullah Kodiriy, have created a number of works in the genre of feuilleton to raise important issues in the life of the society, problems to be solved and attract public attention to them. At one time, A.Kahhor's sharp language and satire were highly recognized. A.Kodiriy received the title of "king of feuilleton". At the same time, it was of great importance that the publicists clearly indicated their direction. Using all the possibilities of the genre, they brought their point of view to the audience.

The journalist chooses a genre based on his or her goal, because the same event can be described in different ways and by examples. Needed and properly selected genre helps to quickly and easily achieve the goal. In particular, in order to cover a mass event or holiday in a certain country, mainly use the genre of reporting. In this way you can bring the event to asurprise in real time. At the same time, a special place on television is occupied by a journalist's stand-up from the place of the event. Davr" news program aired by "Yoshlar" TV and radio company of Uzbekistan shows reports on the celebration of 575th anniversary of the birth of great poet Alisher Navoi in our country.

Each genre has its own task and scope. The essence of news, reportage and interview is to promptly deliver information to the public. And entering the essence of events and incidents, reflection of their inner layers is the task of correspondence, review, review, article. The genres of a story, essay, essay serve to cover and analyze life through artistic means. The genres can be called "regulators". In a certain issue of a newspaper or program, reading only interviews or news can bore the reader or viewer. Genres provide a variety of materials, programmes, productions in a single newspaper, magazine, television or radio channel. In particular, programs of information direction broadcasted on the Russian TV channels "Vremya" and "Vesti" are not limited to the transmission of information only. In these programs one can observe almost all genres of information - reports, interviews, information correspondence and other stories.

In Uzbekistan, the distribution of genres and their application can be seen especially in printed publications. Let us consider this by the example of the newspaper "Hurriyat". In each issue, the newspaper publishes materials in different genres. For example, the section "Dangal suhbat" ("Open Talk") publishes conversations on different topics with famous literary critics, poets and writers. Under the heading "Mutolaa". ("Reading") reviews of new books published in Uzbekistan are published. On the front pages of the newspaper there are materials in the information genre. Art and publicist genres are published on the last pages. Essays are often found in this newspaper. In other publications, for example, in the newspaper "Halk Suzi" materials are printed mainly in the information genre. Here you can see a note, a report and an interview. Of course, topical issues and important events are covered with the help of analytical genres.

Cases and events are covered in various ways according to their significance, the accumulated information. This serves to enrich the program and keep the audience's attention. Providing only one type of story (e.g., news) in such news programs can lead to the viewer's poor perception of the information, and even a misunderstanding of the essence of most information. Therefore, one should not forget the importance of genres in ensuring diversity. In conclusion, every journalist should have a good knowledge of genres. Because they are designed to be applied in a certain situation. Therefore, they cannot be used in a mixed way. For example, in the material being prepared for an interview, it is not advisable for a journalist to ask unnecessary questions so as not to turn it into a conversation. Because both of these genres are very different from each other. The purpose of creating materials in these genres and the cases of their application are also different.

If you pay attention, it may seem that the characteristic genres of different groups change from small to large. For example, when it comes to the information publicist, it is first of all about the news. If a case or event requires more extensive and detailed coverage, a report is formed on its own. Details of large meetings, sessions or public events and celebrations are reflected in the reports. It should be noted that although the number of genres is decreasing every year, it cannot be said that there are no genres left at all. Because genres are important and always necessary for use.

In general, no matter what genre it refers to or what volume it is, a journalistic or publicist work should serve the interests of people, the people and the population. Each piece should have a clear purpose, be prepared with a justification of the words spoken and an explanation of the topic. Here, of course, the choice of the genre suitable for the past event is of great importance. If the genre is chosen correctly, the goal will become even more clear and bright. Because the correct transmission of information is the basis for its correct perception and makes it easier to understand.

 

Bibliography:
1. Website: www.wikipedia.org 
2. Қозоқбоев T. The basics of Journalism (in Uzbek). - T.: Musiqa, 2007. 
3. Tertychny A. A. Genres of periodical printing. - Moscow: Aspect Press, 2000. 
4. Khudoikulov M. Journalism and publicism (in Uzbek). - T.: Tafakkur, 2011.