Статья:

Teaching children with disabilities

Журнал: Научный журнал «Студенческий форум» выпуск №15(151)

Рубрика: Педагогика

Выходные данные
Kovaleva J.N. Teaching children with disabilities // Студенческий форум: электрон. научн. журн. 2021. № 15(151). URL: https://nauchforum.ru/journal/stud/151/90718 (дата обращения: 31.01.2023).
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Teaching children with disabilities

Kovaleva Julia Nikolaevna
Student of Belgorod State National Research University, Belgorod, Russia

 

Abstract. The article is devoted to the peculiarities of teaching children with disabilities. This problem is especially relevant in the modern world, because every year children with disabilities increase in significant numbers. It is necessary to improve the latest technologies and the training of teachers and educators aimed at a particular field of activity.

 

Keywords: correctional and pedagogical interaction, children with disabilities, special educational needs, developmental defects.

 

L.S. Vygodsky said: «Abnormal development is not defective, but a kind of development that is not limited to negative signs, but has a number of positive ones that arise due to the adaptation of a child with a defect to the world» [p.135:7]. Analyzing the author's statement, it should be noted that each child is unique and individual in its own way. Despite the peculiarities in their development, children learn about the world around them, learn something new for themselves, and most importantly accept themselves as they are. Students with disabilities require more attention to themselves, such children need a special approach in the education system, it is necessary to take into account the structure of the defect for effective correctional and pedagogical influence, to look for new approaches in the education system in a special school [p.213: 6].

Children with disabilities (HIA) are children who have various mental or physical abnormalities that cause disorders of general development that do not allow children to lead a full life [p.247: 2]. In the modern world, the education of children with disabilities is an urgent problem. The number of children with disabilities in Russia has significantly increased in 2020. The increase in the number of children with disabilities is observed every year.

Children with disabilities require special attention and attitude from educators and teachers. According to the types of disability, children with disabilities are distinguished:

  1. Group 1-5-children with hearing, vision, and speech disorders;
  2. Group 6-children with neurological diseases (cerebral palsy, children with head injuries);
  3. Group 7-children with ZPR, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder;
  4. Group 8 – children who are mentally retarded.

Children who belong to groups 1-5 of the disease, most often can study in schools with their peers and continue their future education in various educational institutions. Rehabilitation of children with disabilities of the I-V type often has a positive trend [p.349: 1].

Students with hearing impairment are a common group of children. The basic classification of children with hearing impairments is based on the following criteria:

  1. degree of hearing loss;
  2. loss time;
  3. level of speech development.

In accordance with them, groups of children are distinguished:

1) Deaf (inaudible)

a) early deafened;

b) late deafness.

2) Hard of hearing (hard of hearing).

Deafness and hearing loss can be caused by various diseases of children. Children with this feature of development require a certain attitude to themselves in terms of education. It is possible that they are able to study in a secondary general education institution, but a special educational institution is also intended for such children. Special educational institutions are designed for children with abnormal development of the child's disease. Teachers must take certain measures to educate and educate children. For example, in a biology lesson, a subject teacher can build a lesson in which there is a story-role-playing game.

There are children with congenital or acquired disabilities that are associated with visual impairment. The group of students with visual impairment is increasing, and this is due to the actualization and mobilization of innovative technologies in the modern world. Of course, we can not exclude the fact that there are several groups of children with visual impairment:

1. Blind:

a) absolutely blind, or totally blind;

b) partially blind.

2. Visually impaired:

a) Blind children;

b) the blind.

The hypothesis that children who are part of the group of visually impaired people have acquired this defect by inheritance exists at the gene level. And teachers, as senior comrades, should especially treat this category of children. Subject teachers should not rule out that there should be different types and methods of teaching in the classroom. But children who study in specially designated schools take into account every feature of the children and depending on their severity of the disease.

Students who have neurological diseases should study in special schools designated for such groups of children. Schools of this type are most often opened in the neurological and psychiatric departments of polyclinics, where children spend most of their lives [p.30: 3]. Educators who work with this group of children are required to apply special methods and means of teaching. They should know the basics of a set of measures that are aimed at maintaining and restoring the strength of patients. It is necessary to be able to correctly and correctly create conditions for the life of children that contribute to a favorable course of the disease.

Children who have entered the 7th group of disabilities are engaged in the correction of writing, motor skills, perseverance and attention support [p.268: 4]. Teachers-educators are forced to take into account the special characteristics of each child. After all, this problem is relevant, and the number of children who have this pathology is increasing. This is due not only to hereditary inclinations, but also to the family in which the children are brought up. The difficulties experienced by parents who have such a child are significantly different from the everyday concerns of an ordinary family.

Children of this type should be under the constant supervision of not only parents, but also psychologists. Teachers who work with this group should correctly approach children from a professional point of view. Children are taught in a regular general education school, so teachers should properly systematize the lessons in order to take into account children with this defect [p.43: 7].

Students who have been exposed to group 8 health disorders are trained in educational institutions, where the main goal of education in classes of this type is to teach children to read, calculate, write and navigate the world around them [p.267: 10]. According to statistics, children with mental disorders lead in comparison with other types of disabilities. As a rule, children who have been exposed to this disease are most often of preschool and school age. Children encounter various difficult situations on the way, when they are forced to memorize a lot of information, build logical chains and concentrate on one activity.

«Any child deserves to receive a full-fledged development, in which there would be a self-development of his unique abilities» [p.264: 9]. Reflecting on these words, it is necessary to say that every child requires a special attitude to himself and regardless of whether he has any special features in development or not. The teacher is the first person who should remember this and take into account the individual characteristics of each child he teaches.

Summing up the above, it is important to focus on the fact that in this period of time, the problem of children with disabilities is particularly relevant. After all, each student needs his own approach from the side of education, each teacher should have special ways of teaching children with any defects. Children are unique, and properly selected teaching methods will allow you to discover the creative abilities of children and stimulate independent activity of students.

 

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