Статья:

POLITICAL CHANGES THAT TOOK PLACE IN THE EARLY BYZANTINE CHERSONESE DURING THE VI-IV CENTURIES

Журнал: Научный журнал «Студенческий форум» выпуск №14(193)

Рубрика: История и археология

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Chukanova K.S. POLITICAL CHANGES THAT TOOK PLACE IN THE EARLY BYZANTINE CHERSONESE DURING THE VI-IV CENTURIES // Студенческий форум: электрон. научн. журн. 2022. № 14(193). URL: https://nauchforum.ru/journal/stud/193/109127 (дата обращения: 15.06.2024).
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POLITICAL CHANGES THAT TOOK PLACE IN THE EARLY BYZANTINE CHERSONESE DURING THE VI-IV CENTURIES

Chukanova Ksenia Sergeevna
Student, Belgorod State University, Russia, Belgorod
Shemaeva Elena Viktorovna
научный руководитель, Supervisor Associate Professor, Department of Foreign Languages, Belgorod State University, Russia, Belgorod

 

Chersonese was a policy with a democratic system of government. This system was preserved until the end of the ancient era, despite everything that happened. Only citizens had the right to use the policy, but some groups of the population did not fit this rule. These are such population groups as xenos, meteks and people from the barbarian environment [1, p.58].

The People's Assembly is the main legislative body. Thanks to him, internal and external issues were resolved. Everything related to war and peace was decided, as well as issues of civil rights. It could bestow honorary decrees and much more. The Council was a body of executive power, which could include any people. The Council developed the projects of the People's Assembly.

The executive branch was collegiate. The college of archons directed military and civil life. They served for only a year, and then were re-elected. There were also those who oversaw the execution of the law, it was a board of guardians of the law[3, p. 112].

A new period in the history of Chersonesos begins. It begins in the middle of the second half of the 4th c. BC e., and it is called Hellenistic. The growth of the urban area begins, and Chersonese reaches its maximum sizes. The territory is surrounded by defensive walls, behind which residential and temple buildings are intensively built. At the same time, the development of agricultural territories takes place. First, the development of the environs takes place on the Herakleian Peninsula, and then in the North-Western Crimea.

Territorial growth depended on agricultural areas and population. It is not known where the masses of the population came from, but perhaps some of the inhabitants moved to Chersonese from Heraclea Pontus. During this period, there was an outbreak of social struggle in Heraclea. There was a population explosion, due to which the population increased.

At the end of the 5th - first half of the 4th c. BC e. Chersonesites cultivated small areas of the city's environs, and in the second half of the 4th century. BC e. was already on the entire Herakleian Peninsula and the approximate area was 10 thousand hectares. In the first half of the 4th c. BC e. in the southern part of the Herakleian Peninsula, military-economic complexes are being built under their protection, the development of new territories is being carried out. The territory of the Mayachny and Herakleian Peninsulas was divided into 400 sections, their area was 17.6 and 26.4 hectares. These areas were separated by a road. Each plot of land was divided by a stone fence into squares. These fields were cultivated by the Chersonesites. In the possession of each inhabitant were equal plots of land, their size was 4.4 hectares. Also, a tenth of the territories belonged to temples [5, p.12]. In addition, the land was owned by the civil community. Tauri settlements were located on the borders of these territories. Most likely, the Chersonesites used the labor of the Taurians to cultivate the Herakleian Peninsula.

From the end of the 5th to the beginning of the 4th c. BC e. with the development of the Herakleian Peninsula, the Chersonesites penetrate into the North-Western Crimea. There, the inhabitants of Chersonesos founded a settlement. Thus, after that residents move into the area. This territory was interesting for its trading position and the presence of fertile lands in Kerkinitida. In the IV century. BC e. a number of strongholds of Chersonesos arose. In the second half of the 4th c. BC e. Chersonesus annexed Kerkinitida. Also during this period of time, rural settlements are increasing. We see that at this time Chersonese was moving from a small autonomous policy to the center of a vast territorial state formation.

Thus, at that time, Chersonesos was transformed from a small autonomous polis into the center of a vast territorial state formation that controlled the lands not only on the Herakleian Peninsula, but also in the North-Western Crimea.

10 thousand hectares of land were developed on the Herakleian Peninsula, and in the North-Western and Western Crimea 30-32 thousand hectares. The Greeks took over the land. This results in economic growth. Economic improvements occur due to the fact that people of different legal status lived on the lands of the North-Western Crimea. The civil community of Chersonesos was the owner of allotments. The Chersonese state had an advantage, people who came to these lands and developed these territories had to pay a tax, this tax was directed to the needs of the state. Perhaps taxes were paid in grain.

A new type of state was enshrined in the oath of the citizens of Chersonesos, this was at the turn of the 4th-3rd centuries. BC e. This oath was taken by young men and citizens of the newly formed state. It is generally accepted that a large-scale territorial-state formation, whose center was located in Chersonesos, is a striking feature of the Hellenistic period.

After the development of lands in the North-Western Crimea and the Herakleian Peninsula, changes occurred in the economy of Chersonese. As before, everything was based on agriculture and civil agriculture. There is also a strengthening of allotments due to the lease of lands of temple and state. But one cannot say that there were large landowners, or that some part of the citizens were without land (landless).

Land development played an important role in the flourishing economy of Chersonese. Territories were developed through military expansion. Because of this, the formation of large farms in this territory was much larger, and the labor of socially dependent groups of the population was also used.

There are certain changes in agricultural production, this contributes to the political subordination of the North-Western Crimea. Grape business was developed on the Herakleian Peninsula. In the ancient territories of the North-Western Crimea, grain crops were developed. There was an increase in commodity production, which stimulated the development of crafts and trade. The main centers of commodity production were farms with estates, they had a large land fund.

With the increase in territories, the rise of Chersonesos handicraft production takes place. Their products were delivered to the Herakleian Peninsula and the North-Western Crimea. But no special industries were found in the settlements. Thus, craft workshops were in Chersonese and provided the population of the state with products [10, p.163].

There is an increase in grain and wine, thereby, the products are brought out of Chersonese. This happens in the second half of the 4th century. BC e. Chersonese also maintains trade relations with the ancient centers of Sinope and Heraclea Pontica, as well as with the Lower Dnieper and Lower Don. Wine was imported to these points. The merchants of Olbia and the Bosporus supplied wine to the barbarian population. Thanks to trade relations, the issue of its own coin is increasing. Other ancient centers appear in the city [6, p.78].

 

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