Статья:

Features of the development of joint activities in children of preschool age

Журнал: Научный журнал «Студенческий форум» выпуск №21(72)

Рубрика: Педагогика

Выходные данные
Дешина И.В., Кутовая Д.В. Features of the development of joint activities in children of preschool age // Студенческий форум: электрон. научн. журн. 2019. № 21(72). URL: https://nauchforum.ru/journal/stud/72/53987 (дата обращения: 06.07.2020).
Журнал опубликован
Мне нравится
на печатьскачать .pdfподелиться

Features of the development of joint activities in children of preschool age

Дешина Ирина Владимировна
Student of Belgorod State National Research University, Belgorod, Russia
Кутовая Дарья Викторовна
Student of Belgorod State National Research University, Belgorod, Russia

 

The fundamental principles of joint activities take shape in the period of preschool childhood, when the interaction of a child with peers acquires special features. Communication and the desire to work together with a peer become one of the most important sociogenic needs of a child of senior preschool age.

According to TA Antonova, senior preschool age is a period of social development and active development of personal experience of interaction between preschoolers and their study of cultural values. At this time, there is an intensive orientation of preschoolers in people's relationships, the first experience of independent, morally oriented actions is accumulated, the ability to act in accordance with the ethical norms and rules that are accessible to the child is developed.

In the process of joint activities of children with peers, a “children's society” is formed, which is an essential element of life for “working off” the skills of relationships with society. In the team, older preschoolers learn to plan, coordinate their actions, etc., which contributes to the accumulation of life experience [1, p. 123].

The most important aspect is the equality of the subjects of interaction in the process of communication. The process of communication and joint activity in a certain sense models the subject-subject type of social interaction and, most importantly, is recognized by each of its participants as an equal interaction.

Senior preschool age is most favorable for the development of socially valuable models of interaction between children and peers and for the development of joint activities. Contacting with peers, children learn to coordinate their actions to achieve a common result, take into account the peculiarities of the partner. Joint activities are built on the basis of children's interest in each other and are expressed in the ability to consciously interact.

The influence of the peer group on the development of the child’s personality lies primarily in the fact that it is in the context of communication with peers that the child constantly faces the need to put into practice the assimilable norms of behavior in relation to other people, to adapt these norms and rules to various specific situations [3, p. . 100].

Senior preschool age is a period when a child is capable of rather complicated independent contacts. At this time, the active formation of social thinking, feelings and behavior continues. This is due, on the one hand, high susceptibility of children to social influences, and on the other hand, the development of elements of arbitrariness, self-knowledge, “internal ethical institutions”, the emergence of a hierarchy of motives, a developing need for a generalization of experiences, which generally contributes to achieving a certain level of independence and activity in the relationship.

The joint activities of preschoolers can be considered as a natural social environment in which children acquire the skills of a collective hostel, experience, self-affirmation, learn to interact with different people, communicate with each other. At preschool age, play is one of the main forms of organization of children's life, during which children influence each other, acquire life habits for themselves. Children's relationships are built in the process of role-playing, mobile, theatrical games. The ability to play by the rules, communicate with peers is an indispensable condition for a preschooler's comfortable stay in a team.

In the older preschool years, the emotional well-being of a child in a peer group depends on the ability to organize joint play activities and, in general, on the success of productive activities.

Ways of joint activity are formed in children gradually. In the beginning, it is necessary to offer simple tasks that combine the results of the activities of all participants into a grand total. And then the task is gradually complicated. The most difficult tasks are those that put the task of children to perform identical actions, close coherence with each other in the process of activity.

Communication of children contributes significantly to the mutual transfer of knowledge in the process of joint activities, when preschoolers talk on various topics related to the life and work of people, natural phenomena, and the surrounding environment. Playing and chatting with each other, children naturally acquire a lot of different information about the world [4, p. 97].

A joint game involves the independent organization of children to perform a common action, the consistency of roles, the determination by each child of their place in the group of players. In games with peers, children learn to creatively and arbitrarily manage their behavior together. The task of creating a positive relationship in the game can be solved through the introduction of adult regulatory rules regulating the joint play of preschoolers with peers.

In cooperative games, children master the rules of interaction, learn to understand the other, to coordinate their actions with the wishes of their peers, which is a necessary condition for the development of cooperative forms of activity. An important place in this process is given to the role of an adult who naturally inculcates new, more complex ways of playing to children and focuses them on playing with peers as early as possible. It is important to decide in advance how the task will be presented so that it appears to the children as a collective one. It is necessary not only to set a goal for children that they can achieve together, but also to discuss ways in which joint actions will be agreed upon when reaching the goal. It is also important to clarify how to negotiate, taking into account each other's desire, to offer their options, not allowing rudeness. It is fair to distribute the task among themselves, to listen to the opinion of the comrades, to object in the correct form. The organization of such activities is possible only at the stage of consolidating existing skills, when children do not need clarification of work methods and their attention can be focused on another task [2, p. 24].

In joint activities united by friendly relations, prospects for future joint activities and experiences, children develop a sense of psychological security, spiritual comfort, which, in turn, contributes to the manifestation of creative initiative and contribution of everyone to collective life. At this age, children develop further development of self-regulation of behavior in accordance with the rules and regulations. Children increasingly focus on them and on their ethical views. Therefore, their behavior becomes less dependent on attitudes towards people, and on their own desires and interests [5, p.48].

In joint activities, the process of mutual enrichment, development of its participants is manifested. Each member of the team, on the one hand, brings to the team their individual experience, abilities, interests, on the other hand, they actively absorb the new things that others carry. As a result, there is an expansion of the inner world of each child through the initiation of what constitutes the manifestation of the inner world of other team members.

Thus, we can conclude that in the situation of joint activities of preschool children with their peers, an optimal zone occurs for the realization of all the child’s development possibilities contained in the cooperation of children among themselves. The main idea of ​​the interaction of children is the establishment of partnerships, the creation of an atmosphere of common interests, the intensification of various types of children's activities aimed at children acquiring a certain behavior and experience. The more often they participate in joint activities, the better and stronger their mutual relations. It is in joint activities that children learn to build their behavior in accordance with the needs and desires of their comrades, to help them to successfully achieve a collective result. Common goals, tasks, interests of children in the process of joint activities contribute to the development of positive relationships between peers.

 

Bibliography:
1. Abramova G. S. Age psychology: Textbook for university students. - M .: Academic project; Ekaterinburg: Business Book - 2010.
2. Abramenkova V.V. Children's joint activity as a factor in humanizing interpersonal relations in a group. - In Sat: Psychological foundations of the formation of personality in the conditions of public education. M. - 2013.
3. Babaeva TI, Rimashevskaya L. S. How to develop relationships and cooperation of preschool children in kindergarten. SPb., Childhood-Press - 2012.
4. Belkin V.N. Psychological aspects of the interaction of children of preschool age with peers in the context of modern requirements for preschool education // Yaroslavl Pedagogical Bulletin. Volume II (Psychological and Pedagogical Sciences) - 2012. - № 1.
5. Berezina, T. A. Pedagogical diagnosis as a tool for learning and understanding a child of preschool age. SPb .: RSPU named after A.I. Herzen - 2008.